FOREMOST(1)               Naval Postgraduate School               FOREMOST(1)

       foremost - Recover files using their headers, footers, and data struc-


       Recover  files  from a disk image based on file types specified by the
       user using the -t switch.

       jpg    Support for the JFIF and Exif formats including implementations
              used in modern digital cameras.



       bmp    Support for windows bmp format.


       mpg    Support for most MPEG's (must begin with 0x000001BA)

       exe    Windows PE executables (also extracts compile time to audit file)



       riff   This  will  extract AVI and RIFF since they use the same
              file format (RIFF). note faster than running each  sepa-

       wmv    Note  may  also  extract -wma files as they have similar



       ole    This will grab any file using the  OLE  file  structure.
              This includes PowerPoint, Word, Excel, Access, and Star-

       doc    Note it is more efficient to run OLE  as  you  get  more
              bang for your buck.  If you wish to ignore all other ole
              files then use this.

       zip    Note is will extract .jar files as well because they use
              a  similar  format.  Open Office docs are just zip’d XML
              files so they are extracted as well.  These include SXW,
              SXC, SXI, and SX? for undetermined OpenOffice files.


       cpp    C  source code detection, note this is primitive and may
              generate documents other than C code.

       all    Run all pre-defined extraction methods. [Default  if  no
              -t is specified]

       Recover  files  from  a disk image based on headers and footers
       specified by the user.

       -h     Show a help screen and exit.

       -V     Show copyright information and exit.

       -d     Turn on indirect block detection, this  works  well  for
              Unix file systems.

       -T     Time  stamp  the  output  directory so you don’t have to
              delete the output dir when running multiple times.

       -v     Enables  verbose  mode.  This  causes  more  information
              regarding  the  current  state of the program to be dis-
              played on the screen, and is highly recommended.

       -q     Enables quick mode. In quick mode,  only  the  start  of
              each  sector  is searched for matching headers. That is,
              the header is searched only up  to  the  length  of  the
              longest  header.  The  rest of the sector, usually about
              500 bytes, is ignored. This mode makes foremost run con-
              siderably  faster,  but  it  may cause you to miss files
              that are embedded in other  files.  For  example,  using
              quick  mode  you  will  not  be able to find JPEG images
              embedded in Microsoft Word documents.

              Quick mode should not be used when examining  NTFS  file
              systems.  Because NTFS will store small files inside the
              Master File Table, these files  will  be  missed  during
              quick mode.

       -Q     Enables  Quiet  mode.  Most  error messages will be sup-

       -w     Enables  write  audit  only  mode.   No  files  will  be

       -a     Enables write all headers, perform no error detection in
              terms of corrupted files.

       -b number
              Allows you to specify the block size used  in  foremost.
              This  is  relevant  for  file naming and quick searches.
              The default is 512.       ie.  foremost -b 1024 image.dd

       -k number
              Allows  you  to specify the chunk size used in foremost.
              This can improve speed if you have enough RAM to fit the
              image  in.   It reduces the checking that occurs between
              chunks of the buffer.  For example if you had > 500MB of
              RAM.       ie.  foremost -k 500 image.dd

       -i file
              The file is used as the input file.  If no input file is
              specified or the input file cannot be read then stdin is

       -o directory
              Recovered  files are written to the directory directory.

       -c file
              Sets the configuration file to use. If  none  is  speci-
              fied,  the  file "foremost.conf" from the current direc-
              tory is used, if that  doesn’t  exist  then  "/etc/fore-
              most.conf"  is  used.  The  format for the configuration
              file is described  in  the  default  configuration  file
              included  with  this program. See the CONFIGURATION FILE
              section below for more information.

       -s number
              Skips number blocks in the input file  before  beginning
              the  search  for  headers.       ie.  foremost -s 512 -t
              jpeg -i /dev/hda1

              The configuration file is used to control what types  of
              files  foremost  searches  for.  A  sample configuration
              file, foremost.conf, is included with this distribution.
              For each file type, the configuration file describes the
              file’s extension, whether the header and footer are case
              sensitive,  the  maximum  file  size, and the header and
              footer for the file. The footer field is  optional,  but
              header, size, case sensitivity, and extension are not!

              Any  line  that begins with a pound sign is considered a
              comment and ignored. Thus, to skip a file type just  put
              a pound sign at the beginning of that line

              Headers and footers are decoded before use. To specify a
              value in hexadecimal use \x[0-f][0-f], and for octal use
              \[1-9][1-9][1-9].   Spaces  can  be  represented  by \s.
              Example: "\x4F\123\I\sCCI" decodes to "OSI CCI".

              To match any single character (aka a wildcard) use a  ?.
              If you need to search for the ? character, you will need
              to change the wildcard line *and*  every  occurrence  of
              the old wildcard character in the configuration file. Do
              not forget those hex and octal values!  ?  is  equal  to
              \x3f and \063.

              There is a sample set of headers in the README file.

       Search for jpeg format skipping the first 100 blocks
              foremost -s 100 -t jpg -i image.dd

       Only  generate  an audit file, and print to the screen (verbose
              foremost -av image.dd

       Search all defined types
              foremost -t all -i image.dd

       Search for gif and pdf
              foremost -t gif,pdf -i image.dd

       Search  for office documents and jpeg files in a Unix file sys-
              tem in verbose mode.
              foremost -v -t ole,jpeg -i image.dd

       Run the default case
              foremost image.dd

       Original Code written by Special Agent Kris Kendall and Special
       Agent Jesse Kornblum of the United States Air Force  Office  of
       Special Investigations.

       Modification  by  Nick  Mikus a Research Associate at the Naval
       Postgraduate School Center  for  Information  Systems  Security
       Studies and Research.  The modification of Foremost was part of
       a masters thesis at NPS.

       When compiling foremost on systems with versions of glibc 2.1.x
       or  older,  you  will  get  some  (harmless)  compiler warnings
       regarding the implicit declaration of fseeko  and  ftello.  You
       can safely ignore these warnings.

       Because  Foremost could be used to obtain evidence for criminal
       prosecutions, we take all bug reports very seriously.  Any  bug
       that  jeopardizes  the forensic integrity of this program could
       have serious consequenses. When submitting a bug report, please
       include  a  description  of  the problem, how you found it, and
       your contact information.

       Send bug reports to:

       This program is a work of the US Government. In accordance with
       17  USC 105, copyright protection is not available for any work
       of the US Government.

       This is free software; see the source for  copying  conditions.
       There  is  NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS

       There is more information in the README file.

       Foremost was originally designed to imitate  the  functionality
       of  CarvThis,  a  DOS  program  written by the Defense Computer
       Forensics Lab in in 1999.

NPS                           v1.1 - January 2006                   

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